Mencius or Mengzi (372–289 BC or 385–303 or 302 BC) was a Chinese philosopher who has often been described as the “second Sage”, that is after only Confucius himself.
The transmission of Chinese culture from generation to generation is a key factor in the continuation and development worldwide of overseas Chinese communities. It is also an important reason why overseas Chinese communities grow, identify themselves with the Chinese nation, and love the China passionately. The face that all overseas Chinese are willing to carry forward cultural orthoxy, revere the aged and honor the wise, cement peaceful relations by upholding good faith, venerate ethics, value tradition, coexist in harmony, and preserve differences while striving for similarities, is attributable above all to the civilizing educational impact of Chinese culture.
Culture is the driving force behind human history and civilization; it is like running water-a source of nourishment and growth that never stagnates. To propagate and advance culture, it is necessary to carry on tradition in all its original beauty and at the same time to instill it with a modern spirit.
Mencius, also known by his birth name Meng Ke ， was born in the State of Zou, now forming the territory of the county-level city of Zoucheng (originally Zouxian), Shandong Province, only thirty kilometres (eighteen miles) south of Qufu, Confucius’s birthplace.
He was an itinerant Chinese philosopher and sage, and one of the principal interpreters of Confucianism. Supposedly, he was a pupil of Confucius’s grandson, Zisi. Like Confucius, according to legend, he travelled throughout China for forty years to offer advice to rulers for reform. During the Warring States period (403–221 BC), Mencius served as an official and scholar at the Jixia Academy in the State of Qi (1046 BC to 221 BC) from 319 to 312 BC. He expressed his filial devotion when he took three years leave of absence from his official duties for Qi to mourn his mother’s death. Disappointed at his failure to effect changes in his contemporary world, he retired from public life.